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Some examples of this include the Dropbox security breach, and iCloud 2014 leak. [80] Under the dPaaS model, the PaaS provider, not the customer, manages the development and execution of programs by building data applications for the customer. Un nuage communautaire utilise une infrastructure provenant d'un ensemble de membres partageant un intérêt commun, comme dans le cas des milieux universitaires pour des études de grande envergure[5]. Les systèmes les plus économes en termes de stockage et de bande passante utilisent généralement un code de correction d’erreur appelé code d’effacement. En France, selon la Commission générale de terminologie et de néologie c'est une forme particulière de gérance de l'informatique, dans laquelle l'emplacement et le fonctionnement dans le nuage ne sont pas portés à la connaissance des clients[2]. [133] Cloud computing is still a subject of research. Though service-oriented architecture advocates "Everything as a service" (with the acronyms EaaS or XaaS,[73] or simply aas), cloud-computing providers offer their "services" according to different models, of which the three standard models per NIST are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). [79] dPaaS delivers integration—and data-management—products as a fully managed service. Ici, votre article devrait s'appeler Élasticité (Cloud computing). Les francisations « informatique en nuage »[2], « informatique dématérialisée »[6], ou plus rarement « infonuagique »[7] sont également utilisées. Varied use cases for hybrid cloud composition exist. Un nuage privé est destiné exclusivement à une organisation qui peut le manipuler elle-même ou faire appel à des services fournis par des tiers[5]. Function as a service (FaaS) is a service-hosted remote procedure call that leverages serverless computing to enable the deployment of individual functions in the cloud that run in response to events. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems, software, web, performance, information technology engineering, security, platform, risk, and quality engineering. Most public-cloud providers offer direct-connection services that allow customers to securely link their legacy data centers to their cloud-resident applications. Kind Code: A1 . Le National Institute of Standards and Technology en a donné une définition succincte qui reprend ces principes de base : « L'in… ), peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer and pay for the resources and equipment to meet their highest possible load-levels). IBM cloud computing is a set of cloud computing services for business offered by the information technology company IBM. Ce calcul ne doit pas se limiter aux coûts directs, mais doit aussi intégrer l'ensemble des coûts cachés pour que le cloud permette d'économiser ainsi que l'effet des avantages du cloud sur le business de l'entreprise (productivité accrue, recentrage métier…). Certains analystes indiquent que 20 à 25 % d’économies pourraient être réalisées par les gouvernements sur leur budget informatique s’ils migraient vers le cloud computing[39]. Un premier livre blanc datait de novembre 2011, dont certains de ces résultats sont cités dans l'édition 2012, Le livre blanc du cloud, du SaaS et des services Managés pour la distribution IT & Télécoms -. [111] This kind of cloud emerges from the rise of ARM-based system-on-chip for server-class computing. With this simplification, the implication is that the specifics of how the endpoints of a network are connected are not relevant to understanding the diagram.[18]. It is possible to distinguish between two types of distributed clouds: public-resource computing and volunteer cloud. Pour les utilisateurs, particuliers et entreprises, la location de services associée au cloud computing permet généralement de réaliser des économies à court terme. Services include user management, push notifications, integration with social networking services[87] and more. Nevertheless, cloud computing has proven to have some limitations and disadvantages, especially for smaller business operations, particularly regarding security and downtime. Les garanties relatives à la confidentialité des données, à la traçabilité des opérations et à la qualité des services sont à définir clairement, dont pour les applications critiques ou manipulant des données à caractères personnel, stratégique ou encadrées par une quelconque législation. The growth has led to an increasing demand for quality and more specialized cloud computing services. The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider's applications running on a cloud infrastructure. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale. The provider's computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. [47][48][49], In May 2012, Google Compute Engine was released in preview, before being rolled out into General Availability in December 2013. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Large clouds, predominant today, often have functions distributed over multiple locations from central servers. Le cloud computing peut permettre d'effectuer des économies, notamment grâce à la mutualisation des services sur un grand nombre de clients. Ainsi, si toutes les fermes de serveurs d'informatique en nuage constituaient un pays, celui-ci viendrait au quatrième rang mondial des plus grands consommateurs d'énergie[41]. [72] Gartner defines a hybrid cloud service as a cloud computing service that is composed of some combination of private, public and community cloud services, from different service providers. [15], The cloud symbol was used to represent networks of computing equipment in the original ARPANET by as early as 1977,[16] and the CSNET by 1981[17]—both predecessors to the Internet itself. [46] This cloud offering is poised to be the first to provide users with access to an integrated set of IT solutions, including the Applications (SaaS), Platform (PaaS), and Infrastructure (IaaS) layers. Un nuage est caractérisé par plusieurs principes récurrents: Le nuage (public, privé ou communautaire) bénéficie de technologies telles que la virtualisation du matériel informatique, les grilles, l'architecture orientée services et les services web[10]. Several studies aim at comparing these open source offerings based on a set of criteria. It enables effectively both to downsize and upsize the capacity of IT resources in real time. The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user,[84] so prices become scalable and adjustable if users are added or removed at any point. (2013): 1–1. Un investissement de la Caisse des dépôts et consignations de 75 millions d'euros par projet a été réalisé pour permettre le développement des deux sociétés[31],[32],[33]. 2 . [75], The NIST's definition of cloud computing describes IaaS as "where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. En ce sens, la mode du cloud computing tire parti : de l'augmentation considérable de puissance des serveurs (la fréquence de fonctionnement des serveurs a été multipliée par un facteur 10, entre 1998 et 2008, les processeurs comportent entre quatre et dix cœurs); et de la baisse des coûts de stockage (pour le prix d'un disque dur de 1,2 Go en 2000, on a, en 2013, un disque de 1 000 Go). Linux containers run in isolated partitions of a single Linux kernel running directly on the physical hardware. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. In the software as a service (SaaS) model, users gain access to application software and databases. Selon le livre blanc du cloud[52] édité à l'occasion d'un événement annuel réunissant les acteurs du cloud[53], les activités suivantes peuvent être distinguées : Pour Richard Stallman[54],[55], à l'origine du projet GNU, l'informatique dans le nuage « est un piège », les utilisateurs perdent le contrôle de leurs applications. In addition, to use by General Magic itself, it was also used in promoting AT&T's associated PersonaLink Services. Cloud computing Architectures, services et risques Giovanna Di Marzo Serugendo Institute of Information Service Science Giovanna.Dimarzo@unige.ch iss.unige.ch . Cela dépend du mode d'utilisation (fréquence, nombre d'utilisateurs…) et de la durée de vie de l'application. [135], Privacy and confidentiality are big concerns in some activities. Cloud computing technologies have brought new attributes to the IT world. International Journal of Electronic Business Management 11.3 (2013), L. Albertson, "OpenStack vs. Ganeti", LinuxFest Northwest 2017, Qevani, Elton, et al. Cloud computing is all about renting computing services. Elles sont ensuite distribuées aux nœuds du système suivant des algorithmes de balance de charge, de distribution géographique, etc. Après l'apparition d'Internet (vers 1980), ce mode d'accès a été supposé par défaut. On peut considérer que le cloud computing, associé à une disponibilité des accès au réseau internet en haut débit et en très haut débit interconnectés, a fait émerger tout un secteur d'activité, des entités qui, de manière transverse, offrent des services Web à destination du grand public sous forme d'applications Web ou, plus spécifiquement, à destination du secteur professionnel, nécessitant une approche orientée services et des prestations productives (dématérialisation, gestion de contenus), architecturés sur mesure. They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management,[97] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". Dans ce contexte, l'ancêtre du SaaS correspondait au ASP[16]. [citation needed], An alternative approach is to deploy a tool that processes in the cloud itself. This delivers great incentive to public cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. [13], Cloud computing was popularized with Amazon.com releasing its Elastic Compute Cloud product in 2006. Abstract Image Management and Universal Image Registration for Cloud and HPC Infrastructures ", IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD), 2012. Cloud microphysics parameterization is required in most NWP models because a sophisticated, explicit prediction of the evolution of cloud microstructure is either impossible or impractical even with the most advanced computing resources. Mais le coût total à moyen et long termes peut se révéler, au bout de quelques années, supérieur au coût d'une application hébergée en interne. [22] They experimented with algorithms to optimize the infrastructure, platform, and applications to prioritize CPUs and increase efficiency for end users.[24][22]. [51] The main enabling technology for cloud computing is virtualization. Cloud computing is when computing services are provided by a company or place outside of where they are being used. Si le cloud existe, c'est pour accéder à ses données en situation de mobilité, à partir de terminaux tels qu'ordinateurs personnels, tablettes, smartphones, avec une connexion réseau, en 4G (réseau mobile de 4e génération). Usage on sco.wikipedia.org Cloud computing; Usage on si.wikipedia.org වලාකුළු පරිගණනය ; Usage on sk.wikipedia.org Cloud computing; Usage on sl.wikipedia.org Računalništvo v oblaku; View more global usage of this file. It is like the way in which electricity is sent to users: they simply use the electricity that is sent to them and do not need to worry where the electricity is from or how it is made and brought to them. En France, dans le cadre des investissements d'avenir, deux consortiums, Cloudwatt mené par Orange et Thales[28], et Numergy, mené par SFR et Bull[29], ont été mis en place à la suite d'un appel à projet gouvernemental[30]. [144], For organizations using Office 365 with an 'E5' subscription, there is the option to use Microsoft's built-in ediscovery resources, although these do not provide all the functionality that is typically required for a forensic process. Cloud computing icon: Date: 上傳於 8 avril 2010 (UTC) Source: Travail personnel basé sur : Weather-overcast.svg et Gnome-computer.svg: Auteur: 百楽兎. Ces aspects, et la volonté des sociétés de l'offre de toucher les grands comptes comme les PME impliquent une distribution indirecte dont le métier devra évoluer vers des activités plus liées à l'évaluation, au support, à l'accompagnement et au pilotage, tout en tenant compte des spécificités du client final. 4 Chapter 2. [9][10][11] By 2019, Linux was the most widely used operating system, including in Microsoft's offerings and is thus described as dominant. [14], References to the phrase "cloud computing" appeared as early as 1996, with the first known mention in a Compaq internal document. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis: cost reflects the amount of resources allocated and consumed. Le 22 novembre 2010, le gouvernement des États-Unis a lancé sa politique de cloud prioritaire : des économies substantielles étaient attendues sur son budget annuel informatique de 80 milliards de dollars, par la consolidation d'au moins 40 % des 2 100 centres de données d'ici 2015[27]. Younge : "Efficient resource management for cloud computing environments" Duy : "Performance evaluation of a green scheduling algorithm for energy savings in cloud computing" Wadwha : "Energy saving approaches for Green Cloud Computing: A review" : une … As this document is meant to provide guidance in understanding the categorization, evaluation, comparison, and selection of cloud services, it does not provide a prescriptive set of guidelines for the selection process. The OpenStack project intended to help organizations offering cloud-computing services running on standard hardware. The word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics. Les fournisseurs de service doivent augmenter leurs infrastructures (serveurs, bande passante, surface au sol…) pour faire face aux besoins croissants des clients. », Compubase Consulting et Partner VIP (2012) Le livre blanc du cloud, du SaaS et des services Managés pour la distribution IT et Télécoms ; 100p, réalisé à la suite de deux campagnes d’interviews de revendeurs et d’éditeurs de logiciels faite en France que dans autres pays d’Europe. Cloud computing is beneficial to many enterprises; it lowers costs and allows them to focus on competence instead of on matters of IT and infrastructure. The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider. 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