<< endobj So you need to learn how to do it. /Resources 205 0 R Abstract

The move from hand-designed features to learned features in machine learning has been wildly successful. H�,��oa���N�+�xp%o��� 9 0 obj << 0000004204 00000 n Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent NeurIPS 2016 • Marcin Andrychowicz • Misha Denil • Sergio Gomez • Matthew W. Hoffman • David Pfau • Tom Schaul • Brendan Shillingford • Nando de Freitas The move from hand-designed features to learned features in machine learning … But doing this is tricky. An approach that implements this strategy is called Simulated annealing, or decaying learning rate. /Type /Page Also, there are steps that are taken to reach the minimum point which is set by defining the learning rate. endobj 0000005180 00000 n endobj It’s a way of learning stuff. /Type (Conference Proceedings) �U�m�HXNF헌zX�{~�������O��������U�x��|ѷ[K�v�P��x��>fV1xei >� R�7��Lz�[=�z�����Ϊ$+y�{ @�9�R�@k ,�i���G���2U����2���k�M̭�g�v�t'�ǦW��ꁩ��lJ�Mut�ؤ:e� �AM�6%�]��7��X�Nӝ�QK���Kf����q���N9���6��,iehH��f0�ႇ��C� ��a?K��`�j����l���x~��tK~���ֳQ���~�蔑�ۡ;��Q���j��VMI�. Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent Marcin Andrychowicz 1, Misha Denil , Sergio Gómez Colmenarejo , Matthew W. Hoffman , David Pfau 1, Tom Schaul , Brendan Shillingford,2, Nando de Freitas1 ,2 3 1Google DeepMind 2University of Oxford 3Canadian Institute for Advanced Research marcin.andrychowicz@gmail.com {mdenil,sergomez,mwhoffman,pfau,schaul}@google.com 10 0 obj This paper introduces the application of gradient descent methods to meta-learning. H�T��n� D�|G8� ��i�J����5U9ئrAM���}�Q����j��h>�������НC'^9��j�$d͌RX+Ì��3y�B0kkL.�a\`�z��!����@p��6K�|�9*8�/Z������M��갞�8��Z*L����j]N9�x��O$�vW�b.��o��%_\{_p)��?����>�3�8P��ę�0�b7�H�n�k+a�����V�a�i��6�imp�gf[/��E�:8�#� o#_� 0000103892 00000 n /Parent 1 0 R >> /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] 0000004970 00000 n >> dient descent, evolutionary strategies, simulated annealing, and reinforcement learning. 0000003507 00000 n >> /Parent 1 0 R /Resources 195 0 R Let’s take the simplest experiment from the paper; finding the minimum of a multi-dimensional quadratic function. endobj >> 0000111024 00000 n Home page: https://www.3blue1brown.com/ Brought to you by you: http://3b1b.co/nn2-thanks And by Amplify Partners. 0000004350 00000 n Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent, Andrychowicz et al., NIPS 2016. Abstract. /Parent 1 0 R endobj Rather than averaging the gradients across the entire dataset before taking any steps, we're now going to take a step for every single data point, as … One of the things that strikes me when I read these NIPS papers is just how short some of them are – between the introduction and the evaluation sections you might find only one or two pages! H�bd`af`dd�uut ��v���� ��f�!��C���q���2�dY�y�z1Ϝ��ä�ü�������w߯W?�Xe�d����� �x�X9J�: �����*�2�3J4�5--�u�,sS�2��|K2RsK�������ԒJ ����+}���r���b���t;M��̒����Ԣ��������T�w���s~nAiIj��o~JjQ��-/#3##sPh���˾�}g��\��w�Y��^�A������m�͓['usL�w��;'G��������������7ts,�5��������~��\7����2����9���������l��Ӧ}/X��;a*��~� �Ѕ^ 12 0 obj /Resources 184 0 R But later on, we want to slow down as we approach a minima. Gradient Descent in Machine Learning Optimisation is an important part of machine learning and deep learning. stream In deeper neural networks, particular recurrent neural networks, we can also encounter two other problems when the model is trained with gradient descent and backpropagation.. Vanishing gradients: This occurs when the gradient is too small. %%EOF 332 0 obj Such a system is differentiable end-to-end, allowing both the network and the learning algorithm to be trained jointly by gradient descent with few restrictions. /Type /Page /Contents 105 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] Let us see what this equation means. endobj 0000003151 00000 n endobj ... Brendan Shillingford, Nando de Freitas. 参考论文：Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent, 2016, NIPS. /Parent 1 0 R Learning to Learn without Gradient Descent by Gradient Descent Yutian Chen, Matthew W. Hoffman, Sergio Gomez Colmenarejo, Misha Denil, Timothy P. Lillicrap, Matt Botvinick, Nando de Freitas We learn recurrent neural network optimizers trained on simple synthetic functions by gradient descent. << /Filter /FlateDecode /Subtype /Type1C /Length 396 >> endobj /Publisher (Curran Associates\054 Inc\056) 3 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /S 350 /Length 538 >> 11 0 obj >> %���� << /Ascent 750 /CapHeight 683 /Descent -194 /Flags 4 /FontBBox [ -4 -948 1329 786 ] /FontFile3 333 0 R /FontName /GUOWTK+CMSY6 /ItalicAngle -14 /StemV 52 /Type /FontDescriptor /XHeight 431 >> 325 0 obj To find the local minimum of a function using gradient descent, we must take steps proportional to the negative of the gradient (move away from the gradient… /Book (Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 29) j7�V4�nxډ��X#��hL8�c$��b��:̾W��a�"�ӓ /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] x�Z�r��}��@��aED�n�����VbʎȔd?����(:���w��-9��n,3�P�R��i�r�s��/�?�_�"_9q���p~pj��'�7�CG����4 ������cW�a����n��ŉ��zu�s�r��;�ss�w��Y{�`�u]��Υ endobj 0000003994 00000 n 0000091887 00000 n However this generality comes at the expense of making the learning rules very difficult to train. /Resources 128 0 R x�c```a``ec`g`�6gb�0�$���������!��A�IpN����7 %�暾>��1ը�+T;bk�'Oa����l��%�p*#��Dg\�\�k]����D�N1�J�T�f%�D2�W�m�ˍ�Y���D����L���3�2n^��S�e��A+�����!��l���w��}|���\2���sr�����zm]}cs�����?8��(�rJT'��d�s�6�L"7�d��ݮ7wO��?�tK�t-=3۪� �x9�F.��[�9wO��g[�E"��k���̠g�s��T:�hE�lV�wh2B�׀D���9 i N��20\a�e�g�b��P�x�a+C)�?�,fJa��P,.����I��a/��\�WUl2ks�g�Ƥ+7��8S�D�!��mL�{�j��61��t1le�f���e2��X�4�>�4��#���l8k$}xC��$}�P�Z��c ��~�͜!\;8.r?���J�g�����4�,�{@7-��L�v0V���w�6��3 ��ŋ For instance, one can learn to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent, or learn local Hebbian updates by gra- dient descent (Andrychowicz et al., 2016; Bengio et al., 1992). startxref /firstpage (3981) << /BBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Filter /FlateDecode /FormType 1 /Matrix [ 1 0 0 1 0 0 ] /Resources << /ColorSpace 323 0 R /Font << /T1_0 356 0 R /T1_1 326 0 R /T1_2 347 0 R /T1_3 329 0 R /T1_4 332 0 R /T1_5 350 0 R /T1_6 353 0 R /T1_7 335 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] >> /Subtype /Form /Type /XObject /Length 5590 >> << /Filter /FlateDecode /Subtype /Type1C /Length 529 >> Stohastic gradient descent loss landscape vs. gradient descent loss landscape. /Contents 200 0 R << 321 0 obj >> endobj << /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] << endstream This gives us much more speed than batch gradient descent, and because it is not as random as Stochastic Gradient Descent, we reach closer to the minimum. /EventType (Poster) of a system that improves or discovers a learning algorithm, has been of interest in machine learning for decades because of its appealing applications. /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] >> << As we move backwards during backpropagation, the gradient continues to become smaller, causing the earlier … << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 256 >> /Resources 211 0 R endobj H�bd`af`dd� ���p �v� � �~H3��a�!��C���8��w~�O2��y�y��y���t����u�g����!9�G�wwC)vFF���vc=#���ʢ���dMCKKs#K��Ԣ����Ē���� 'G!8?93��RA�&����J_���\/1�X/�(�NSG��=[PZ�Z�����Z�����lhd�� ���� rsē�|��k~�^s�\�{�-�����^��S�͑�V��͑ž��`��e��w�u��2زط�=���ͱ��Q���5�l:�ӻ7p���4����_ޮ:��{�+���}O�=k��39N9v��G�wn���9~�t�tqtGmj��ͱ�{լ���#��9V\9�dO7ǋ��6����N���~�r��-�Z����]��C�m�ww������� The concept of "meta-learning", i.e. �-j��q��O?=����(�>:�U�� p+��f����`�T�}�9M��B���JXA�)��%�FDכ:_�/q�t�0�rDD���O���8t��=P�������;�2���k���u�7��1H�uI���K[����BJM͡��%m��#��fRV�4� ސ7�,D���b�����0�E1��q�?��]��aI�o��cP � ��w6P��.�?`��`ӱH=���n�=�j�ܜtBtg\�*��Ԁo!�!Cf�����n4�bVK��;�����p�����o��f�)�ؘ,��y#^]>A�2E^����ܚ�K{Pz���Z&j�PDl�`�1v�3��/�Z���8G̅�={� ��?O� F��AO��B��$��kpdE��� ��`��M���N���I���#�!R��}�m��[$^��*䗠{ �*�,���%� s�p�����|r�ȳV�V���4� >�� ��I���n�s5m~^�2X/������EKz�v�;�j�[�����b��P3��W; �s:3���(��l�؏�GniCY%!^�8����Ms����u����M����^�O0��m�짽��mH� G��� .��r��m�� �W˿F�B�{A oҹ��}�3���rl�iwk3.�T�E���I���3��K^:������ gm=9o� �T��q. trailer << /Info 317 0 R /Root 319 0 R /Size 357 /Prev 633494 /ID [<3fb3ea08e3d99dde1d6f707a8c98cb84>] >> /Parent 1 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] 0000092949 00000 n << /BaseFont /GUOWTK+CMSY6 /FirstChar 3 /FontDescriptor 334 0 R /LastChar 5 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font /Widths [ 638 0 0 ] >> /Author (Marcin Andrychowicz\054 Misha Denil\054 Sergio G\363mez\054 Matthew W\056 Hoffman\054 David Pfau\054 Tom Schaul\054 Nando de Freitas) /Contents 13 0 R << Welcome back to our notebook here on gradient descent. /Resources 201 0 R /Type /Page You need a way of learning to learn by gradient descent. /Type /Page Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent. endobj It is called stochastic because samples are selected randomly (or shuffled) instead of as a single group (as in standard gradient descent) or in the order … 0000001905 00000 n Because once you do, for starters, you will better comprehend how most ML algorithms work. /Editors (D\056D\056 Lee and M\056 Sugiyama and U\056V\056 Luxburg and I\056 Guyon and R\056 Garnett) stream << /BaseFont /PXOHER+CMR8 /FirstChar 49 /FontDescriptor 325 0 R /LastChar 52 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font /Widths [ 531 531 0 0 ] >> In spite of this, optimization algorithms are still designed by hand. /Type /Page 323 0 obj of a system that improves or discovers a learning algorithm, has been of interest in machine learning for decades because of its appealing applications. /Contents 210 0 R stream 336 0 obj xref stream << /Ascent 694 /CapHeight 683 /Descent -194 /Flags 4 /FontBBox [ -36 -250 1070 750 ] /FontFile3 324 0 R /FontName /PXOHER+CMR8 /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 76 /Type /FontDescriptor /XHeight 431 >> 0000013146 00000 n /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] A widely used technique in gradient descent is to have a variable learning rate, rather than a fixed one. %PDF-1.3 endobj /Contents 127 0 R endobj 324 0 obj 0 0000005324 00000 n 319 0 obj << Vanishing and Exploding Gradients. endobj /Producer (PyPDF2) >> << << ��'5!iw;�� A���]��C���WBh��%�֦�Д>4�V�N����l=��/>R{U�����u�*����qJ��g���T�@�u��_Nj�@��[ٶ���)����d��'�ӕ�S�Qm��H��N��� � Stochastic gradient descent (often shortened to SGD), also known as incremental gradient descent, is an iterative method for optimizing a differentiable objective function, a stochastic approximation of gradient descent optimization.. ∙ Google ∙ University of Oxford ∙ 0 ∙ share The move from hand-designed features to learned features in machine learning has been wildly successful. 331 0 obj There’s a thing called gradient descent. The concept of “meta-learning”, i.e. /Published (2016) << 0000006174 00000 n /Contents 160 0 R << /BaseFont /FRNIHB+CMSY8 /FirstChar 3 /FontDescriptor 331 0 R /LastChar 5 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font /Widths [ 531 0 0 ] >> The parameter eta is called the Learning rate, and it plays a very important role in the gradient descent method. << /Filter /FlateDecode /Subtype /Type1C /Length 540 >> Gradient Descent is the workhorse behind most of Machine Learning. 5 0 obj 0000082084 00000 n stream endstream �b�C��6/k���4���-���-���\o��S�~�,��/��K=��u��O� ��H << >> stream 项目成员：唐雯豪(@thwfhk), 巫子辰(@SuzumeWu), 杜毕安(@scncdba), 王昕兆(@wxzsan) Learning to Learn Gradient Aggregation by Gradient Descent Jinlong Ji1, Xuhui Chen1;2, Qianlong Wang1, Lixing Yu1 and Pan Li1 1Case Western Reserve University 2Kent State University fjxj405, qxw204, lxy257, pxl288g@case.edu, xchen2@kent.edu Abstract In the big data era, distributed machine learning :)��ؼ8M��B�I�G�\G앥�"ƨO�c�@�����݅�03İ��_�V��yݫ��K�O~�Gڧ�K�� Z����&�xߺ�$m�\,4J�)o�P"P�6$ �A'���V[ً I@*YH�G&��ĝ�8���'@Bjʹ������;�t�w�r~!��'�l> mqH�`�Nڦ�8ٹ�A�e�@�P+A�@9��i��^���ߐ��[X[=�^���>�5���9�&׳��g��^�9ֱWL�:�ua�+� �3�z Learning to Rank using Gradient Descent ments returned by another, simple ranker. I definitely believe that you should take the time to understanding it. endobj /Type /Page In this post, you will learn about gradient descent algorithm with simple examples. 0000002520 00000 n When we fit a line with a Linear Regression, we optimise the intercept and the slope. endobj 0000104120 00000 n %PDF-1.5 In this video, we're going to close out by discussing stochastic gradient descent. Gradient descent is a optimization algorithm which uses the gradient of a function to find the local minima or maxima of that function. 0000001181 00000 n /Contents 183 0 R >> Initially, we can afford a large learning rate. >> << /Ascent 750 /CapHeight 683 /Descent -194 /Flags 4 /FontBBox [ -30 -955 1185 779 ] /FontFile3 330 0 R /FontName /FRNIHB+CMSY8 /ItalicAngle -14 /StemV 46 /Type /FontDescriptor /XHeight 431 >> /ModDate (D\07220170112154401\05508\04700\047) 326 0 obj endobj This paper introduces the application of gradient descent methods to meta-learning. /Created (2016) 0000017321 00000 n /Description-Abstract (The move from hand\055designed features to learned features in machine learning has been wildly successful\056 In spite of this\054 optimization algorithms are still designed by hand\056 In this paper we show how the design of an optimization algorithm can be cast as a learning problem\054 allowing the algorithm to learn to exploit structure in the problems of interest in an automatic way\056 Our learned algorithms\054 implemented by LSTMs\054 outperform generic\054 hand\055designed competitors on the tasks for which they are trained\054 and also generalize well to new tasks with similar structure\056 We demonstrate this on a number of tasks\054 including simple convex problems\054 training neural networks\054 and styling images with neural art\056) /Kids [ 4 0 R 5 0 R 6 0 R 7 0 R 8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R 11 0 R 12 0 R ] 0000006318 00000 n So you can learn by gradient descent. >> stream import tensorflow as tf. Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent. 0000012256 00000 n 8 0 obj Notation: we denote the number of relevance levels (or ranks) by N, the training sample size by m, and the dimension of the data by d. endobj Almost every machine learning algorithm has an optimisation algorithm at its core that wants to minimize its cost function. Gradient descent is an iterative optimization algorithm for finding the local minimum of a function. << /Contents 322 0 R /CropBox [ 0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0 ] /MediaBox [ 0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0 ] /Parent 311 0 R /Resources << /Font << /T1_0 337 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /XObject << /Fm0 336 0 R >> >> /Rotate 0 /Type /Page >> The idea is to take repeated steps in the opposite direction of the gradient (or approximate gradient) of the function at the current point, because this is the direction of steepest descent. Tips for implementing gradient descent For each algorithm, there is always a set of best practices and tricks you can use to get the most out of it. 7 0 obj 318 0 obj /Subject (Neural Information Processing Systems http\072\057\057nips\056cc\057) /Description (Paper accepted and presented at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference \050http\072\057\057nips\056cc\057\051) 1 0 obj 0000012875 00000 n /Length 4633 Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent. Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent Marcin Andrychowicz, Misha Denil, Sergio Gomez, Matthew W. Hoffman, David Pfau, Tom Schaul, Brendan Shillingford, Nando de Freitas The move from hand-designed features to learned features in machine learning … The same holds true for gradient descent. 0000095233 00000 n /Contents 204 0 R In spite of this, optimization algorithms are … "p���������I z׳�'ZQ%uQF)��������>�~���]-�/����o>��Kv2�����3�����۸�P�h%���F��,�?8�M��\Y�������r�D�[f�4Xf�~�d Ϙ���1®@�Y��Ȓ$�ȼL������#���y�%�"y�����A��rRW� �Ԥ��^���1���N��obnCH�S�//W�y��`��E0������%���_��*��w��W�Y 334 0 obj 0000082045 00000 n endstream The concept of “meta-learning”, i.e. /Language (en\055US) Gradient descent is a first-order iterative optimization algorithm for finding a local minimum of a differentiable function. /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] stream /Type /Page 0000017539 00000 n << /Linearized 1 /L 639984 /H [ 1286 619 ] /O 321 /E 111734 /N 7 /T 633504 >> 0000003358 00000 n 5Q!FcH�h�h5�� ��t��P�VlI�m�l�w-�_5���b����M��%�J��!��/߹1q�ڈ�?~����~��y�1�v�~���~����z 9b�~�X��9� ���3!�f�\�Yw�5�3#��������ð��lry��:�t��|R$ Me:�n�猃��\z1,FCa��9(���ܧ�R $� :t.(��訢(N!sJ������� �%��h\�����^�"�>��v����b���)1:#�::��I2c0�A�0FBL?~��Z|��>�z�.��^%V��P�Z77S�2y�lL6&�ï�o�74�*�]6WM"dp1�Y��Q7�V����lj߰XO�I�KcpyͭfA}��tǽ�fV�.O��T�,lǷ�͇p\�H=�_�Z���a�XҠ���*���FIk� 7� ���I��tǵ���^��d'� 333 0 obj 329 0 obj Thus each query generates up to 1000 feature vectors. 4 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Subtype /Type1C /Length 550 >> 6 0 obj endobj /Type /Catalog /Resources 161 0 R endobj 0000002146 00000 n << endobj Μ��4L*P)��NiIY[S /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] 322 0 obj First of all we need a problem for our meta-learning optimizer to solve. 330 0 obj I don't know how using the training data in batches rather than all at once allows it to steer around local minimum in the example, which is clearly steeper than the path to the global minimum behind it. endobj ��f��j��nlߥ����Yͷ��:��բr^�s�y8�y���p��=��l���/���s}6/@� q�# H�,O�ka�������e�]��l�m刢���6ꝸcJ;O����k�L�wsm���?۫���BAD���7��/��Q������Y!d��ߘ�>��Mݽ�����at�g ���Oyd9�#s�l'�C��7YM[��8�=gK�o���M�3C�_8�"sVʂp�%�^9���gB >> /Filter /FlateDecode 0000095444 00000 n endstream u�t��8LG�C�Ib,D�/��D)�t�,���aQIP�吢D��nUU])�c3W��T +! endobj endstream Now, in Mini Batch Gradient Descent, instead of computing the partial derivatives on the entire training set or a random example, we compute it on small subsets of the full training set. << /DefaultCMYK 343 0 R >> 0000104753 00000 n endobj /Resources 106 0 R endobj << /BaseFont /EAAUWX+CMMI8 /FirstChar 59 /FontDescriptor 328 0 R /LastChar 61 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font /Widths [ 295 0 0 ] >> 0000092109 00000 n 318 39 endobj /Pages 1 0 R H��W[�۸~?�B/�"VERW��&٢��t��"-�Y�M�Jtq$:�8��3��%�@�7Q�3�|3�F�o�>ܽ����=�O�,Y���˓�dQQ�1���{X�Qr�a#MY����y�²�Vz�EV'u-�A#��2�]�zm�/�)�@��A�f��K�<8���S���z��3�%u���"�D��Hr���?4};�g��gYf�x6Y! /Parent 1 0 R /Resources 14 0 R 327 0 obj Because eta is positive, while the gradient at theta naught is negative, and because of this negative side here, the net effect of this whole term, including the minus sign, would be positive. << /Ascent 694 /CapHeight 683 /Descent -194 /Flags 4 /FontBBox [ -24 -250 1110 750 ] /FontFile3 327 0 R /FontName /EAAUWX+CMMI8 /ItalicAngle -14 /StemV 78 /Type /FontDescriptor /XHeight 431 >> 328 0 obj /Type /Pages /Parent 1 0 R /Parent 1 0 R /Type /Page endobj /Type /Page =g�7���ۡ�GyZ���lSuo�l�.�?97w�v�9���p����f��eOp�>A�/|��"���W��w,,ϩ�kH�J�4R�3���A�8��]� i.�+�i�'�:/k���z�>�[�ʇ����g�y䦱N��|ߍB��Ibu�Dk�¹���>�`����,MWe���WE]VO�+7 ��GT�r|��낌B�/������{�T��fS����1�$u��Zǿ�� *N. 335 0 obj 0000001286 00000 n endstream 2 0 obj endobj This code is designed for a better understanding and easy implementation of paper Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent. 0000000015 00000 n It decides how many steps to take to reach the minima. endobj 0000082582 00000 n 0000002476 00000 n 0000096030 00000 n 320 0 obj Time to learn about learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent by reading my article! /lastpage (3989) 06/14/2016 ∙ by Marcin Andrychowicz, et al. Gradient descent makes use of derivatives to reach the minima of a function. ]�Lܝ�>6S�|2����,j /Parent 1 0 R Abstract This paper introduces the application of gradient descent methods to meta-learning. /Contents 194 0 R 0000005965 00000 n /Title (Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent) 0000111247 00000 n << /Lang (EN) /Metadata 313 0 R /OutputIntents 314 0 R /Pages 310 0 R /Type /Catalog >> 13 0 obj /Count 9 Gradient descent is, with no doubt, the heart and soul of most Machine Learning (ML) algorithms. 0000017568 00000 n 项目名称：Learning to learn by gradient descent by gradient descent 复现. /Date (2016) Descent methods to meta-learning abstract < p > the move from hand-designed features to learned features machine... Algorithm has an Optimisation algorithm at its core that wants to minimize its function! Multi-Dimensional quadratic function expense of making the learning rules very difficult to train,... 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