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A MESA shaker configuration. Afterward, three case study applications are presented and detailed step by step, from the preliminary analyses for the appropriate planning of the dynamic tests to the signal acquisition, data analysis, and results interpretation. [583]. Internal package pressure increases if external atmospheric pressure decreases, as is the case when packages packed at low altitudes are moved to or shipped at high altitudes. When good practice is used this can be limited to 0.5% but the reduction can be up to 3.5% if the rewinding is poor. Cycle time was 11 seconds. The vibration level is characterized as the root mean square value of the signal. Tip – Motors that have been mechanically damaged should always be replaced. Tip – It is now financially good to replace many motors with HEMs before failure. 10.16A and B. Part II: Ch. This can be a simple spreadsheet listing: The action to be taken in the event of failure, i.e., replace/repair? There are four types vibration testing methods; each designed to simulate the vibration energy observed on each unique system. It aids in defining the vibration environments that material may be exposed to throughout a life cycle. This primer is an explanation of the typical requirements found in vibration test specifications and the parameters used to control the vibration tests. Electronics Vibration Testing. When the vibration environment has two unique random vibration characteristics, then the random vibration profile can also be tailored to include random vibration applied over another random vibration background. In addition the nondestructive nature of the test is particularly valuable here because the same specimen exposed to possibly deteriorating environments can be consistently and repeatedly tested to monitor possible changes in these performance indices. The controller controls off of the accelerometer with the maximum (or minimum) value. Resonance vibration testing takes various forms. D7387 Test Method for Vibration Testing of Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) Used for Shipping Liquid Hazardous Materials (Dangerous Goods) … Testing the product to failure will teach the company many important things about its product’s weaknesses and ways to improve it. Pure sine vibration. The examples provided in the chapter point out the main benefits that in-situ dynamic testing can bring in terms of calibration of behavioral models representative of ancient masonry buildings, improved knowledge about the actual performance of these nonconventional systems, validation of adopted strengthening measures, and better design of future structural interventions. Methods: Three podiatrists with varying clinical experience tested four- and 10-site, 10g monofilament and vibration perception threshold (VPT). Vibration testing is performed for a variety of reasons: to determine if a product can withstand the rig-ors of its intended use environ-ment, to insure the final design will not fall apart during shipping, for Environmental Stress Screening to weed out production defects, or even as a form of Accelerated Stress Testing. Vibration modes have been calculated for many sample and structural test conditions. Strike a tuning fork and the soundyou will hear would be of a single sinusoidal wave produced at a specificfrequency. One of the worst actions for energy efficiency and operational reliability is to allow an AC motor to run hot. The goal of the test is to measure the device’s response. By saving ≈ £2,500 in purchase costs, the company has increased the energy costs by ≈ £25,000 over the next 10 years. However, they do need some basic maintenance to ensure that they continue to operate efficiently. On a random vibration power spectral density plot, the acceleration amplitude is scaled on the y-axis in units of g2/Hz and the x-axis in units of frequency (Hz). Excitation Methods. Instrumenting the product within the packaging can indicate the degree of dampening provided by the packaging. 3 min read 1. Fluke Vibration Testing and Laser Shaft Alignment Equipment and Systems were designed specifically for maintenance professionals who need to quickly perform vibration analysis and evaluate alignment to understand the root cause of equipment condition. involve vibrational modes that are not necessary for the assess-ment of the part quality. Multimodal vibration environments are produced for closely simulating in-flight vibration environments, to determine the capacity of the equipment to function in accordance with its intended purposes in operational vibration environments. This requires optimization of the positions and the nature of the support. When vibration increases beyond normal levels, it may be a sign of alignment issues or source of trouble and you need fast and actionable answers. Between product packaging and product consumption, the filled packages often must be stored over considerable times and transported over considerable distances. There are many ways to configure a multi-axis vibration test. Check the temperatures using the ‘hand test’ (see Section 4.14). Overall vibration measurements, usually expressed as the RMS value (except for displacement where peak-peak values apply), form the basis of condition monitoring measurements and trending, but have limited value for analysis. Application of computer aided engineering (CAE) techniques is a mandatory element of contemporary vehicle development processes. whereas the power amplifier rating is influenced by the peak values. Mechanical Shock Testing Mechanical shock testing typically involves subjecting a test device to sudden and extreme amounts of acceleration or deceleration while instrumentation, such as strain gages, load cells, piezo sensors and more. Vibration testing is accomplished by introducing a forcing function into a structure, usually with some type of shaker. Learn 8 Essential Methods of Vibrational Testing. Whole Body Vibration Measurement. The Surface Micromachining technology is qualified for automotive applications. The typical aircraft random vibration test profiles are between 30 minutes and 6 hours per axis, with 3 hours being a common choice in the absence of specific knowledge of the transportation profile. Figure 1. Compared to hydraulic shakers, ED shakers are capable of much higher frequencies. For example, on an electronic module the circuit boards are often the main resonant structures and typically their fatigue conditions are most important to understand. If the failed motor is a standard motor then this would increase the efficiency penalty for using the rewound standard motor versus a new HEM to over 10%. ROR Random on Random ISO International Standards SAE International Standards ASTM Standards. Since polypropylene was added to the weld interface, the difficulties associated with the high glass content of the GMT were overcome. Even the best maintained motor will eventually fail and a decision is then needed whether to replace or to rewind. For motors of less than about 7.5 kW it is often cheaper and easier to replace the motor than to consider rewinding. Tip – One of the easiest and quickest methods of doing this is to use a vibration meter. According to the topography band of interest and vibration test results, a frequency decision graph is plotted in Fig. In multi-axis vibration testing, extremal control is similar to extremal control in single-axis testing. Key elements of vibration measurements and tests are. Two coil designs are possible, depending on structural requirements of the weld: a single weld located at the end of the part, or a dual weld, placed at the interfaces of the flat panel and ribbed shell. Even if prototypes can still be fully used after noise and vibration testing, upfront CAE simulations of components as well as full vehicle noise and vibration performance are required to ‘do it right the first time’, i.e. We advise on the choice of test methods and help with carrying out tests. Technicians carefully control these vibrations to ensure samples only experience a single, predetermined frequency at any time. Random vibration testing involves running of vibration energy at all frequencies over a specified range on a device under test (DUT) simultaneously. Measurement methods include piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers for the excitation and detection of vibration. Figure 10.15. This test method measures the vibration-damping properties of materials: the loss factor, η, and Young”s modulus, E, or the shear modulus, G. Accurate over a frequency range of 50 to 5000 Hz and over the useful temperature range of the material, this method is useful in testing materials that have application in structural vibration, building acoustics, and the control of audible noise. Data Physics is a turnkey supplier of vibration test systems from electrodynamic shakers to intuitive and advanced vibration controllers. All motors are certified for a specified temperature increase whilst running and will continue to operate within these limits. Do not allow the fan inlet to be blocked as this will cause the motor to overheat. There are some restrictions to be noted in the use of resonance vibration techniques. Sampling frequency decision graph. SOR test typically simulates environments for propeller driven airplanes and helicopters. Aerospace and Aviation. In real life situation, vibrations are usually in random form. In the future, decisions must be made on the ‘whole life cost’ of the motor where all purchase, maintenance, repair and operating costs are considered. Random vibrations can be found in automobiles, aircraft, rockets etc. Measures of the resonant frequencies and damping in vibration testing provide two independent sources of information. This can perform tests including components production stress, screening to prototype testing, and qualification of products to military standards. In some applications, vibration measurements are made during normal operation of a structure or machine. Christina Leinenbach, ... Roy Knechtel, in Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies (Second Edition), 2015. The shock of impact compresses the volume of the package and increases internal pressure at all points in the package.6 Steady downward pressure, as from weight stacked on packages, may also increase internal pressure. In this method, impulsive excitation is applied using an electromagnetic hammer and the transverse displacements of the beam are measured with respect to time by means of a noncontacting eddy current probe positioned near the tip of the beam. If simple calculations of the effect of this loss of efficiency are carried out then for any motor operating for more than 2,000 hours (in total and not per year) it is more cost-effective to purchase a new HEM than to rewind a failed motor. Strong interlaminar bonds integrate various strengths of individual component layers in ways that can overcome limitations of any one layer. Burst strength is also tested by sudden deceleration of a dropped flexible package. This method proves useful for simulating environments where very steady vibrations are generated— such as those near equipment like a turbine wherein a sample will experience incessant vibrations at a given frequency. Are they the right ones? As the EMA material melts and flows under pressure, the surface irregularities are filled. The camera height parameter is used to adjust the sampling frequency of the measurement system. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. To meet the requirement for avoiding signal aliasing, lower scanning speed and higher sampling frequency are preferable from the perspective of filtering out induced vibration components from the topography band of interest. ; Perform the test selecting a peak-to-peak displacement as per Figure A. Although polypropylene is one of the most difficult thermoplastics to weld using other methods, it is one of the easiest materials to bond using electromagnetic welding. A uniform structural weld was produced in 15 seconds, with consistent weld strength over 1000 psi (6.9 MPa) on a one inch square overlap. Tip – There is a Good Practice Guide for motor rewinding produced by the Association of Electrical and Mechanical Trades (www.aemt.co.uk). Damping measurements, while very valuable, provide only indirect information. Vibration analyses and tests: Electrodynamic shaker units to subject test objects to defined excitations with sinusoidal vibrations, noise, or shock. Tip – Motor register. This fact means that in a world filled with energy and movement, vibrations or the oscillating responses of objects when moved from a position of rest are the norm. When vibration increases beyond normal levels, it may be a sign of alignment issues or source of trouble and you need fast and actionable answers. A leak proof (almost 100% reliability) seal and high reliability (100%) was obtained. Alternatively, a package can be submersed in a tank of water and a vacuum pulled in the tank. Check the load transmission and mechanical alignment of the motor to the load as detailed in Section 4.16. The relationship between λtopo and Ftopo is described as follows: where λtopo is the wavelength of the surface topography of interest and Ftopo is the corresponding frequency. To improve upon traditional Gaussian distribution in random testing, Vibration Research has developed a patented technique of kurtosis control called Kurtosion ®. Vibration Testing Vibroacoustic Testing We have developed customer-friendly agreements to streamline business relationships and are eager to share our unique facilities and expertise with new customers. He thought he was doing the right thing because nobody ever told him otherwise. This test is similar to the above with the test parameters modified as specified in MIL-STD-202G method 201A. Vibration testing is done to introduce a forcing function into a structure, usually with the use of a vibration test shaker or vibration testing machine. Vibration testing simulates the vibration conditions that a product might experience during its lifetime but under a controlled and repeatable test environment. Japanese industrial Standard for Vibration Testing methods for automobile parts. The multiple radial scanning vibration results and frequency analysis are shown respectively in Fig. This includes, but goes well beyond, industry and military shock and vibration testing methods established by IEC, SAE, MIL-STD, ISO, ASTM, RTCA and the Department of Defense (DOD). Vibration tests are performed to develop material to function in, and withstands the vibration exposures of a life cycle. The force produced by an exciter is mainly limited by the heating effect of the current. The vibration test system and other associated equipment should not be operated in damp, oily, dirty or dusty environments. data typically are collected. Compressive strength of corrugated cases should be specified to avoid such an effect. select design concepts capable of meeting required component and full vehicle noise and vibration performance targets to avoid manufacturing, testing and redesign of sub-optimal vehicles or components, for the following reasons: The prototype build process is time- and resource-consuming and hence cannot be done repeatedly during the vehicle development process; current market constraints require short and efficient development processes to achieve affordable product prices. Tip – This is most easily carried out using a thermal camera and this will also reveal any poor connections to the motor (see Section 8.3). This will allow the test to run at the level recorded or at increased levels. See Sinusoidal Vibration Testing to learn more about the differ… Puncture itself results from a combination of many primary material features including, tensile strength, elongation, and modulus. An MMP can provide the rules for making the best financial decision. Mechanical Shock Testing. An important variant of resonance vibration testing is the “wheel tap test”. Also see Appendix C of the US DoE publication1 for an excellent checklist to assess a motor contractor. This chapter focuses on the characterization of the dynamic behavior of historic masonry structures. The shape of the puncture force can be selected to match objects encountered in distribution. D.O. The passive component is subjected to a simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 0.06 inch pk-pk and the vibration frequency varying uniformly between 10 and 50Hz with approximately 1 minute sweep time up and down. 10.16B indicates the primary vibration components are less than 100 Hz and the sampling frequency of DRI probe is consequently set to be 200 Hz. An essential part of motor management is a motor register. Thompson, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. Panels composed of a GMT 40% glass mat composite used to produce station wagon structural load floors. With the current health challenges the world is facing, and the ever-expanding interest in “Energy Medicine” and “Vibrational Healing” methods, we have created an online class showing how to apply 8 of the most important vibrational testing methods created by the original French Medical Radiesthesiasts. The amplitude and frequency of the sinusoidal wave form is changed depending on the testing condition. Vibration Measurements Vibration Sensors Structural vibration is commonly measured with electronic sensors called accelerometers. For motors of greater than 7.5 kW, rewinding is often the instinctive answer because it is cheap, it is fast and it has always been done that way – but is it the best answer in the long term? ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B008043152601055X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008102110100008X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128130599000105, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081006368000065, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781884207587500230, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978184569497550008X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323299657000245, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323264365000321, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081025079500040, NDT Techniques: Acoustic Techniques at Low Frequency, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Dynamic identification of historic masonry structures, Maria-Giovanna Masciotta, Luís F. Ramos, in, Long-term Performance and Durability of Masonry Structures, On-Machine Metrology for Hybrid Machining, Vibration from machine tool axes, such as the air bearing spindle and linear stages will degrade measurement results. The vibration testing industry has made good use of sine vibra- tions to help assess the frequencies at which a particular device under test (DUT) resonates. Check out our vibration testing capabilities here. This test is similar to the above with the test parameters modified as specified in MIL-STD-202G method 201A. For example, an automobile can be instrumented with many accelerometers and driven on road or a test track while vibration signals are measured and analyzed. This lesson will discuss multi-axis test configurations, concerns with multi-axis vibration testing, and control methods for multi-axis vibration. Standard Test Methods for Vibration Testing of Shipping Containers1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 999; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. Modal vibration response measurements using impulsive excitation can be used to determine two additional performance indices of interest, the storage modulus and loss factor. Even if prototypes can still be fully used after noise and, Christina Leinenbach, ... Roy Knechtel, in, Handbook of Silicon Based MEMS Materials and Technologies (Second Edition), micromechanical properties has been proven. In the appliance industry, a two-piece polypropylene teakettle was welded together using induction welding. vibration testing It is generally demanded that a random Signal should contain peak-values of three times the RMS value. Vibration test methods and apparatus for qualifying equipment for use in aerospace vehicles. 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